Best sources of vitamin b12 also knouw its absorption and treatment

Best sources of vitamin b12 also know its absorption and treatment

Best sources of vitamin b12 also know its absorption and treatment

vitamin b12 is a very essential and important water-soluble vitamin, it is required for the proper functioning of nerve cells. it is playing an important role in the formation of red blood cells also DNA  formation. in this article, we will learn about the best sources of vitamin b12 also the storage, requirement, and treatment.


Discovery of vitamin b12

An interesting fact about the discovery of vitamin b12 is that:- it discovered almost in the US and England in 1948
Only the vitamin b12 containing the element of cobalt.
It is produced by fungi and bacteria extremally
Vitamin B12 contains cobalt as well cyanide group, hence cyanocobalamin was given to vitamin B12.
It is produced by micro-organism, some are produced for their own, some are produced vitamin B12 in excess and these are used for commercial production.
In our body, our intestinal bacteria also produce an excess vitamin B12 which later excreted in the feces.
Hence, fertilizers made from dried sludge containing about 7 mg of vitamin B12 per gram of dried sludge

Absorption of vitamin b12

For better absorption feeding the liver in the presence of human gastric juice is very effective rather than feeding alone liver in the absence of gastric juice was not so effective.
There are two factors were necessary for treating pernicious anemia such as:-
Intrinsic factor,
Extrinsic factor

In which the intrinsic factor is present in the stomach and whereas the extrinsic factor is vitamin B12.
Let’s talk about the intrinsic factors (IF)
In the human body IF is produced by the gastric parietal cells, the combination of IF and vitamin B12 are resistant for digestion and hence it reaches specific receptors in the ileum in which vitamin B12 absorption occurs
Why vitamin B12 is not absorbed:-
The atrophied stomach wall also secretes scanty intrinsic factors.
Also, the patients suffering from the peptic ulcer take some gastric acid-suppressing medication which inhibits the cobalamin absorption.

3.Storage of vitamin B12:-

Vitamin B12 is stored in the body in the form of coenzyme B12.
near about 2 mg is sufficient in a year, liver stores the half of these total 0.7-1.2 mg per gram of wet liver.
In the condition of liver cirrhosis and in pernicious anemia values goes to 0.25 and 0.1 mg of wet liver.
The level of cyanocobalamin is very small in our body but cyanide poisoning levels rise rapidly.

It varies from person to person:-
But according to, Recommended dietary Allowance
0-0.5 years require 0.3 mcg /day
0.5-1.0 years require 0.5 mcg / day
1-3 years require 0.7 mcg / day
4-6 years require 1 mcg/day
7 and all above years require 1.4-2 mcg/day
During lactation, the value goes to 2.8 mcg/day

best sources of vitamin b12:-

It is synthesized by micro-organisms which are present in the soil, water, animals, and human intestines
Vitamin B12 produced by large intestinal bacteria is not absorbed hence it does not provide any nutrition.
Whereas small intestinal bacteria able to provide vitamin B12 in vegetarians:-

Cheese content 1.4-3.6 mg vitamin B12 / 100gm weight.
Beef muscle = 2-8 mg / 100gm wt.
Beef kidney = 20-50 mg / 100gm wt.
Beef liver = 50- 130 / 100gm wt.
Chicken liver = 8/ 100 gm wt.
Egg yolk = 1.2/100gm wt.
Egg white not containing vitamin B12
Fish = 10-40 / 100 gm wt.
Cow milk = 0.2-0.6 mg/100 gm wt.
Goat milk = 0.01 mg / 100 gm wt.
Out of that, normally only 1 mg vitamin B12 is needed in the process of formation of red blood cells.


For treating extreme vitamin B12 deficiency three factors are guided us:-

A very high dose of vitamin B12 lead to a loss of the urine
2.requirement of vitamin B12 and maintenance is varied person to person

  1. Sufficiently large dose helps to accumulate and store in the liver for last a long time
    There are two therapy is available for treating vitamin B12 deficiency ( pernicious anemia)
  2. Oral therapy,:-
    In pernicious anemia, oral therapy does not work good but can be advised with intrinsic factor to increasing or facilitating absorption
  3. Injection therapy:-
    An intramuscular dose of hydroxocobalamin is always preferred because it is better retainable.
    Near about 8% of 100 mg dose of hydroxycobalamin and 45 % Cyanocobalamin are lost from the body by the urination.
    In severe cases, the dose of injection would be 100 mcg by the intramuscular in 3 times a week up to 2-3 weeks
    After that maintenance dose is required, For that 100 mcg once every month is needed
    Nutritional vitamin B12 deficiency:-
    Vitamin B12 deficiency occurs after the surgery such as partial gastrectomy Also in resection of the ileum,
    For treating this nutritional vitamin B12 deficiency can be treated by monthly 100 mg injections of vitamin B12.
    7.Toxicity of vitamin B12
    There are no toxic side effects that occur in high doses of vitamin b12 but in some cases, the anaphylactic reaction can occur. so, these all about the best sources of vitamin b12 and its absorption and treatment.
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